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The increased recognition of the importance of land-climate interactions and feedbacks in modulating regional climate, including extreme temperature and precipitation events, and the interest in the climate-change impacts on regional water cycle, highlights the need for realistic representation of land-surface types and processes in climate models. For the Canadian high latitude and Arctic regions, this would imply representation of the multitude of surface types comprising of lakes, wetlands, rivers, glaciers, snow, permafrost etc. in climate models. Interactions and feedbacks between the atmosphere and these underlying surface types are important and determine the evolution of many simulated near-surface variables. A better understanding of these processes and their interactions at the regional level is essential to improve the quality of forecasting tools. Much progress has been achieved in the recent years in this direction and this talk will essentially discuss the impact of high latitude land surface types and processes on the regional climate and their evolution in future climate. In particular the impact of snow cover, permafrost, peatlands, lakes, vegetation, glaciers, on the high-latitude climate will be discussed. The role of land-atmosphere coupling in modulating extreme events, particularly temperature and precipitation extremes, will also be discussed.